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Old 22-10-2012   #31
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Beautiful - looks like I may have to rebuild my engine just to keep up with the 'Joneses' as I've only got 35mm inlet valves

Chris
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Old 22-10-2012   #32
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

haha! So long as it's just the engine Chris. No way do you want to keep up with me on panel work... Some pics below of latest progress. Floor, inner sill and other patches now complete on one side, and have started on the other. We're leaving the work on outer sills and front guards etc until both sides are more metal than rust...
One thing I have done is add brace points underneath the car so it can be lifted in future in a four post hoist. Should make any future maintenance easier. The brackets came readymade and don't cost much.

Cheers Roger
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Old 23-10-2012   #33
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Luckily, my little car seemed to have spent a fair bit of its life out of the weather and as a result the body had little rust though it did have a couple of dings front and back.

Yours seems to be coming along very nicely and I'm following the rebuild with great interest. The hoist points are a good idea.

Chris
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Old 23-10-2012   #34
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Glad you're enjoying it. Pop across the ditch this time next year and you can take a test drive!
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Old 17-11-2012   #35
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Hi all,

I've just got my crank and flywhel back from being balanced, so thought I'd share my experience of an area that seems to come up in questions often on this and other fiat forums.

The issue with balancing a paralell twin crank is that you cannot simply do a basic rotational balance job. This is because you need to take into account the forces on the crank created by the reciprocating weight of the piston/rods etc. Because these are always on "one side" of the crank, you can't compensate for them fully, so you have to take a percentage of their weight - effectively splitting the difference across the rev range. This percentage is called the "factor of balance". If you know an engine's factor of balance you simply add bob weights of the correct weight to the crank when you balance it. Trouble is, Fiat never published this percentage, so you have to guess.

In my case, the engineer was able to tell me that with standard pistons my crank was balanced from factory at about 37%. Now, that is crazy. Balance factors for parallel twins tend to range from 50% to 80%, so 37% was very low. Allowing for my new, lighter pistons and rods the crabk would have been at about 50%, still low in my opinion. Around 60% is very common, and this is what I have used, based on published data for 650cc parallel twin triumph motorcycle engines which also rev out to about 6000-6500 rpm.

To achieve this the engineer had to add quite a lot of weight to the crank counterweight, which he does by drilling out the steel and replacing with slugs made from a tungsten alloy which weighs 2x steel. Three of these were needed on my crank. Pic 1 shows a close up of one, including the grub screw used to make sure the slug stays in place.

The engineer also balanced the ends of the crank, which meant taking some weight out. That's done my shaving some steel off. (Pic 2) On one end it wasn't possible to take quite enough off without reducing the strength of the crank, so, in an opposite method to that used on the counterweight, the crank steel was drilled out and a lightweight alloy slug was added. (Pic 3).

Oh yeah, and before you do this make sure you"ve cleaned out the sludge trap on the crank, and put a few dabs of weld on the new cover plugs so they don't come out. (Pic 4).

As well as balancing the flywheel with the crank I also chose to lighten the flywheel a little. (pic 5) I can't recall the standard weight, but the new weight is approx 5.8 kilograms. As I recall that's about a 30% reduction over standard. I know there are mixed views over the need for this on a road car, but I felt a mild drop in weight would help the engine rev up a little faster and reduce load on the gearbox when changing gear - both good things in my view. A heavier flywheel obviously helps mask the inherient "lumpiness" of a parallel twin, but with the better crank balancing a mild reduction in flywheel weight should be noticed only for good reasons and not bad... ?!

All that's left to do is to tap into the oil gallery on the engine block to allow the adding of an oil filter/cooler at a later date and I can finally start the engine build. Can't wait!

Cheers Roger
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Old 17-11-2012   #36
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Quote Originally Posted by RogerNZ View Post
The issue with balancing a paralell twin crank is that you cannot simply do a basic rotational balance job. This is because you need to take into account the forces on the crank created by the reciprocating weight of the piston/rods etc. Because these are always on "one side" of the crank, you can't compensate for them fully, so you have to take a percentage of their weight - effectively splitting the difference across the rev range. This percentage is called the "factor of balance". If you know an engine's factor of balance you simply add bob weights of the correct weight to the crank when you balance it. Trouble is, Fiat never published this percentage, so you have to guess.

So this is why the engineering firm that did mine were constantly mumbling and swearing under their collective breaths. I new it might be tricky, but I didn't think it would be quite this complex.
I hope you kept all of the final specifications somewhere safe.

My engine is still a bit jiggly at idle (~800rpm) but once off idle it's very smooth.

Chris
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Old 17-11-2012   #37
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

So what factor of balance did they use? 37% or 60%? How did they arrive at 37%?

John
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Old 17-11-2012   #38
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Hi John. The 37% figure was my engineer's best guess at the crank's unmodified factor of balance, estimated using weight of standard pistons, rods, bearings. He shifted that to 60% of the weight of my new pistons, rods, bearings. Figures around this 60% mark are common on similar parallel twin engines, such as triumph motorcycles.
I have no idea what factor of balance fiat were aiming for, it is even possible that they did not use this balance method at all and simply did a rough rotational balance job. I suspect wide manufacturing tolerances mean different engines will show different results from factory. Fiat could get away with poor balance because the engine is in a car, mounted on a big spongy spring, and effectively de-tuned to give robust (if lacklustre) performance at a cheap price. Motorcycle manufacturers though had to do a better balance job as they were most often hard mounting engines in frames and riders were looking for better performance. Poor balance on a motorbike can rattle your fillings out of your teeth! Not to mention destabilising he whole bike at speed.
Cheers Roger
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Old 10-12-2012   #39
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Hi all. Slow but steady progress on my panel work continues. Quite a big milestone reached this week though, with the car actually looking like a 500 again after a long time missing a lot of panels. Looks are deceiving in this case however, as the front guards, front panel and outer sills are not actually welded on at this stage, just screwed in place. The floors and inner sills are all done though, along with a lot of smaller work on the lower rear quarters etc. Just some work to do bridging from the rear of the inner front guards/door frame down to the new sills.

I've asked the panel beater to do his best to get nice even door gaps and he's working hard to convince the replacement panels to obey. Once he's happy he will weld on the outer sills while the front guards and panel will be screwed off before the car makes it's first trip to the paint shop where just the inside front will be painted. It may sound over the top, but I want to get good paint inside the front of the car - outside of the inner guards, into all the seams etc - and that can only be done with the outer front guards and panel off. No-one will ever see it, but I'll know it is there, and I won't worry about damp getting into unprotected inner seams etc. (The front panel you see here is late 'F' model, it's not the one I'll be using, but was the one to hand when the panel beater was looking to get on with this part of the job).

If I've got the new steering rack brackets fitted by then then the car will also get seam sealant along all the under floor seams and welds and a coat of textured stone chip seal across the whole bottom. I've been doing a lot of measuring for the steering rack conversion. It seems straightforward enough. I hope to be able to post some pics of this in the early new year.

Engine-wise I've stalled a bit while I investigate oil coolers, but have got the gearbox back together and will do the differential and axles etc later this week.

Oh, and I've got the alternator back from the auto electrician. I stripped and cleaned it all up and he checked it over and added new bearings. I like getting all these little sub-assemblies sorted because I know each one means the car will go back together so much faster once the panel and paint is done.

Currently also searching out good tyres for my nice new campanolo rims.

Cheers Roger
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Old 03-01-2013   #40
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Hi all, Over the past few weeks I've been making steady progress with a number of small jobs which aren't really that interesting to post about here. Today though was a bit of a breakthrough. I had a full half day with the panel beater and as well as making up some new curved pieces to join the new sills to the front of the door frame we were able to install the brackets for the 126 steering rack, cut the hole in the firewall for the pinion and mount the rack in place. Pretty damn happy I can tell you! Tomorrow I'll be looking at how to cut the old steering column and match it up with the 126 lower column. The 126 pinion is not in a straight line from the wheel like the steering box used to be, so you need to use the 126 lower column which uses two universal joints to make a "dog leg" in the column.

I used the brackets from the donor car. It was a bit of a mission for the panel beater to salvage them, but as they cost something like 80 euros each to buy new I think the time was worth it.

Cheers Roger
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Old 03-01-2013   #41
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Hi Roger;
I have been following your restoration with great interest, especially the engine tuning part. I recently purchased a 1971 500L with a very good body and a 595 engine already fitted. I have also purchased a 650cc '126' engine (and 'Bis' gearbox) which I will slowly convert into a '695' whilst I run the car with its present engine as the 595 is a good, strong engine. I have found that the '126 owners club' forum is a very good site for engine tuning information; a site recently added has been put on by 'BLITZ RACING' They used to make small buggies powered by 126 engines and have a lot of experience tuning these engines--a site worth looking at. Meanwhile, keep up the good work, I shall continue to follow it.
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Old 04-01-2013   #42
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Hi Roger;
Done a bit of checking since my last message---reference your problem regarding an engine oil cooler. Check out the 'Nanni Ricambi' web-site; in the 'engine cooling' section, it shows a complete kit for oil-cooler and screw-on oil filter. The problem I am told is trying to get them to communicate with you! If you look on the 'U-tube' site:- u-tube fiat abarth part 1.5--- it shows how they uprated their engine (with the Nanni oil-filter kit)--if you go to the beggining of part 7 of the same series, it shows how they installed the oil cooler---under the o/s/r of the car with a very neatly fabricated air scoop. Re my last note, the 'Blitz Racing' tuning information is in the 'engine tuning' section of the 126 owners club forum--hope all this helps
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Old 05-01-2013   #43
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Thanks Tom, I tried buying an oil cooler from Nanni Ricambi but it didn't work out. The website was easy to use, but there is no online payment system, so I guess you're just supposed to wait for them to calculate the cost and send you an email. I think it has been about 2 months since I placed the order, but I have heard nothing from them.

Meanwhile I have ordered and recieved an oil filter/cooler setup from another supplier. I've included a bunch of pics below. I opted for the version that has a thermosat, so the oil cooling only kicks in when needed. The filter/themostat unit is also "remote" so unlike the Nanni kit the filter can be mounted anywhere in the engine bay, rather than as a fixed item on the front of the timing cover where the oil take-off is. I'm yet to see if this is an advantage but I guess it must be good to reduce the load on the bolts which hold the oil take-off to the timing cover?

Tom, I checked out the you tube site you mentioned. Thanks for the tip. Very nice car! I notice they are doing away with the heating duct that runs from the engine to the car, and using that space to mount the oil cooler unit. I want to keep the heating, so will be mounting the cooler on the opposite side. There is heaps of room there with the whole space "inside" the left-rear swing arm available. At least that's the way it looks right now - I'll let you know how I get on! I also have plans for a scoop to drag air into the cooler - I just need to figure out a way to make sure it doen't become a scoop for stones/rabbits/manure etc etc as well!

Meanwhile, work has gone well matching the steering column with the steering rack - I couldn't resist a mock "drive" of the car in the workshop! Just a shame the real thing is at least 9 months away!

Cheers Roger
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Old 05-01-2013   #44
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

they are some sexual fittings you have there sir. Much better that the fitting i used on my oil cooler setup, i think its the same mocal thermostatic sandwich plate i have used actually. Did you buy the fittings locally or online? would appreciate a link if poss
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Re: 1963 'D' resto with 126

Hi Roger;
I can see and understand your logic regarding having a remote oil filter--who did you buy it from in the end?--it certainly looks the dogs dangly bits! I had a good old think regarding the problem people seem to be having with the 4 ltr sumps--have a look on the relevant page--keep up the good work
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